Why Pipelines Are Needed

When you hear petroleum, you probably think about the gas in your car, jet fuel for your trip and natural gas to heat your home. Contributing to much more than that, thousands of the products we use daily are made with petroleum-derived ingredients. Shampoo, aspirin, pantyhose, toothpaste, heart valves, shoes, BPA-free plastics – these are a sampling of the goods made with petroleum products.

Farming and ranching communities are extremely important to Phillips 66 Pipeline LLC because they provide ideal landscape for routing of pipeline rights-of-way. In 2016, over 7,500 miles of active Phillips 66 Pipeline LLC pipeline were operated on over 21,000 farm and ranch parcels (identfied using national Farm Number data).

Buried pipelines are the primary means of moving energy products from their origination point to consumer use. Recognized by the National Transportation Safety Board as being the safest way to carry energy products, this massive, largely unseen energy transit network is proven and reliable.


Land Safety and Environmental Hazards

As a farmer or rancher, you are inundated with important reminders regarding safety. Warnings about equipment safety, fertilizer and pesticide handling, large animal maintenance and even naturally growing poisonous plants are constantly shared. You’ve probably even seen warnings about pipeline safety.

You know your land and its features, but in the rush to stay ahead of the constant flow of work, pipeline safety sometimes gets forgotten. It’s easy to forget because you’re confident in the location and you know that pipelines operate with such reliability. Additionally, your state may not require you to call.

Even if you know the general location of the pipeline, always call 811 before digging twelve inches or deeper. Natural elements, like erosion, may have caused the ground above or around the pipeline to change, shifting the line’s depth of cover.

Pipeline leaks can cause extensive and costly damage to property and the environment. Making the rest of your season altered. Moreover, pipeline leaks can result in serious health hazards to those nearby – even death.

Consider the product hazards in the chart below when planning any of these common tasks:
  • Chisel plowing
  • Deep ripping or tilling
  • Subsoiling or terracing
  • Creek maintenance
  • Drainage ditch clean out
  • Waterway building
  • Post-setting
  • Drain tile installation

Hazards Table, Adapted from Emergency Response Guidebook 2012 Version

PRODUCT COLOR & DESCRIPTION LOCATION AFTER RELEASED FLAMMABILITY HEALTH HAZARD
REFINED PRODUCTS Refined products vary widely in color. Vapors are heavier than air and tend to settle to the ground. Gasolines of various kinds are the most flammable. Kerosene and fuel oil are somewhat less likely to ignite, but should be considered dangerous. Breathing low concentrations of refined products leads to little health hazard. Contact can sometimes cause minor skin irritations; however, refrain from contact.
Higher concentrations of refined products may lead to asphyxiation.
CRUDE OIL Color can vary from yellow to nearly black. “Sour crude” contains hydrogen sulfide (H2S), and, under certain conditions can be recognized by its rotten egg odor. Vapors are heavier than air and tend to settle near the ground. Flash points of crude oil mixtures can vary. Will burn, producing heat and smoke. Can cause throat and eye irritation as well as breathing difficulty. Heavier concentrations will cause dizziness similar to intoxication and may lead to serious breathing difficulty, even death.
HIGHLY VOLATILE LIQUIDS (HVLS) Colorless. It is transported as a liquid but becomes a gas and forms a vapor cloud when released into the atmosphere. Vapors vary in size depending on weather conditions. If the vapor drifts from the immediate vicinity of a leak, becomes much less visible and detected only by a monitor. Vapors are heavier than air and tend to settle to the ground, especially in low-lying areas. Vapors are highly flammable and ignite very easily. Fire hazard is higher on a calm day, since vapors remain more concentrated instead of dispersed in the air. Vapor displacement of oxygen can result in asphyxiation. Vapors can cause severe freeze burns when in contact with skin.
Some HVLs contain hydrogen sulfide (H2S). Light concentrations of H2S will cause throat and eye irritation as well as breathing difficulty. Heavier concentrations of H2S will cause dizziness similar to intoxication and may lead to serious breathing difficulty, even death.
NATURAL GAS A colorless gas. Vapors from liquefied gas are initially heavier than air and spread along the ground. Vapors may travel to source of ignition and flash back. Natural gas, alone, does not burn. Combustion only occurs when there is a mixture of gas and air, containing between five and 15 percent of natural gas. Harmful, even fatal, if inhaled or absorbed through the skin.
HYDROGEN A odorless, colorless gas. Vapors may travel considerable distances to a source of ignition where they can ignite, flash back or explode. Extremely flammable, burning with a clear flame that can be difficult to see. Can reduce the oxygen available for breathing.

P66 Control Center

Prevention Measures Taken

Phillips 66 Pipeline LLC strives to prevent pipeline incidents and/or mitigate hazards associated with an unintended pipeline release by:
  • Maintaining a comprehensive integrity management program
  • Meeting rigorous standards
  • Communicating with local emergency response agencies frequently
  • Educating the public about pipeline safety and avoiding incidents
SCADA Technology

Operational data is transmitted by a Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) system. SCADA is a series of land-line and satellite electronic controls and computers. The complex system allows Phillips 66 Pipeline LLC to remotely operate valves and pumps and monitor pressures and other vital information from a centralized location.

Integrity Management: Pipeline Incident Prevention Tactics
The term “integrity management” commonly refers to a set of rules that require interstate transmission pipeline operators to:
  • Identify and assess all threats to a particular pipeline segment, whether internal or external
  • Produce an integrity management plan designed to routinely assess identified threats and undertake any necessary measures to maintain the pipeline’s safety
Components of the Phillips 66 Pipeline LLC integrity management plan include:
  • Inspecting surface conditions above and around a pipeline. This happens via aerial patrol or on foot, in accordance with U.S. DOT regulations
  • Inspecting pipeline integrity using in-line devices (commonly called smart tools or PIGs) or hydrotesting
  • Employing internal pipeline corrosion cathodic protection and chemical inhibitors
  • Executing damage prevention and public awareness plans, including the support of One-Call networks
  • Utilizing high-tech control and monitoring tools that yield continuous data on products, pressures, flow rates and emergency information
At least annually, Phillips 66 Pipeline LLC assesses the efficacy of the integrity management program and continually ensures that the program meets or exceeds applicable incident prevention regulations set by the following agencies:
Educating the Farming and Ranching Communities

Phillips 66 Pipeline LLC regularly shares pipeline safety tools and tips created specifically for farmers and ranchers with county service extension offices in the areas where we operate. Download brochures, posters and materials to share with your office.


Damage Prevention on the Job

Farmers and ranchers should contact a local One-Call center by dialing 811 anytime work that could move a soil depth of more than twelve inches is planned.  Once you have dialed 811 to have the line on your property marked again, wait the required amount of time advised by the One-Call call taker.  A waiting period of two to three days is typical.

After your property is marked accordingly, follow these best practices.

Review the latest version of the Common Ground Alliance’s Best Practices document.
Take dated pictures, videos or draw a sketch with accurate distance from markings to fixed objects to document the actual placement of markings.
Retain the locate ticket reference number. When conducting your project, begin each day by hosting a quick meeting (sometimes called a Job Site Analysis or JSA) with your workers, family, etc. During this time, review the location of underground utilities with everyone on your team and discuss the potential hazards of digging near pipelines.
Phillips 66 Pipeline LLC has created a series of eight free Tailgate Meeting Guides adapted from the Common Ground Alliance’s Best Practices guidance document. The free guides are available in English and Spanish and could help you document your safety efforts. Using the meeting guides may help mitigate service disruptions, tremendous repair costs or harm to you or your workers.
Make reasonable effort to protect and preserve the staking or markings of underground utilities. You are responsible to stop excavation and notify the One-Call center via 811 when a facility mark is removed or no longer visible.
Phillips 66 Pipeline LLC will be on-site whenever work is being performed very near our facilities. A company representative will observe work conditions and has the authority to stop any work that is deemed hazardous to the pipeline or workers.
In the same way, farmers and ranchers are always encouraged to have an observer assist the equipment operator whenever performing a dig.
Immediately notify 911, then the Phillips 66 Pipeline LLC emergency number (1-877-267-2290) anytime an unmarked underground facility is uncovered or whenever it is suspected a pipeline has been broken, caused to leak, nicked, dented, gouged, grooved, brushed, moved, etc.

One-Call Requirements for Farmers and Ranchers

Ideally, pipelines are buried at least two feet underground, but soil types, erosion and nearby work can cause the ground to shift and effectively “raise” a pipeline. As a farmer or rancher, you may be exempt from making a One-Call notification before conducting certain farming/ranching-related activities. However, it is always in your business’s best interest to call at least two working days before you begin any digging project with a depth of twelve inches or deeper.

811 National Call Before You Dig

811 is the toll-free, national call before you dig phone number. By dialing 8-1-1, you are automatically connected to a local One-Call center. The One-Call center will ask for details regarding the planned digging project.

How One-Call Works

811 is the toll-free, national call before you dig phone number.

By dialing 8-1-1, you are automatically connected to a local One-Call center. Notify your local One-Call center of your planned digging projects 2-3 days before work begins. Be sure to check the Common Ground Alliance’s state map to find out how far in advance you need to call.

Operators with underground utilities in the vicinity of your project are notified by the One-Call center. Wait a minimum of two days for affected utility operators to respond to your request.

Confirm that all affected utility operators have responded to your request and marked underground utilities. You can recognize the type of line marked on a site by using the following color code:

Respect the marks. Remember that the location of underground utility lines is not an exact science and some areas may have varying degrees of accuracy. A Phillips 66 Pipeline LLC employee will be on site if you plan to dig very near one of our lines or facilities.

Dig Carefully around the marks with care. Utilize hand-digging techniques appropriately and follow the recommendations of the CGA’s Best Practices guide.

Call Again if rain or excavation work has caused the ground markings to be unclear. Call 8-1-1 anytime you begin a new job in the same area.

For best service, have this information in hand before you call:
  • The type of work you’ll be doing
  • The equipment you’ll use and the depth you plan to dig
  • The date and time of your planned work
  • The street address, or nearest intersection and best description of the area, in which you plan to dig
  • Driving directions or GPS coordinates, if available

Recognizing & Responding to a Leak

Recognizing & Responding to a Leak

Dial 911 to report any pipeline pull, jar, snag, nick, dent, scrape or other pipeline emergency. Then notify Phillips 66 Pipeline LLC at 1-877-267-2290 when safe to do so.

Many petroleum products have a distinct odor, such as sulfur (rotten eggs), or a strong petroleum-like odor. That said, you cannot depend on odor alone to determine an energy product leak. In fact, most large diameter pipelines are not odorized, and the intensity of odor is no indication of the severity of a leak. Train your team to recognizing the visual and audible clues to a leak whenever working in the area of a pipeline.

Signs of a Potential Leak:
  • Petroleum-like or sulfur-like (rotten egg) smell
  • Dead grass or dead vegetation
  • Liquid or fire on the ground near a pipeline
  • Dirt blowing into the air
  • Dense white cloud or fog
  • Hissing, gurgling or roaring sounds
If You Suspect a Leak:
  • Leave the area immediately and walk into the wind and away from the site
  • Warn all non-emergency personnel to stay way
  • Avoid contact with any fluids or vapors escaping from the pipeline.
  • From a safe area, call 911 to report a leak
  • Call Phillips 66 Pipeline LLC at 1-877-267-2290 if you can do so safely
If You Suspect a Leak:
  • Do not operate any job site machinery
  • Never attempt to operate pipeline valves or extinguish a pipeline-related fire. This could potentially prolong an incident, cause another leak in the pipeline or risk the your life and the lives of others
  • Do not create a spark. Potential ignition sources include, but are not limited to, smoking materials, open flames, cell phones, pagers, flashlights, vehicle keyless entry remotes, and motorized vehicles or equipment

Even minor damage to a pipeline can result in future problems that could harm property, the environment, or pose a risk to human life. If you suspect that a pipeline has been hit, regardless of the extent of damage, immediately call the Phillips 66 Pipeline LLC emergency number at 1-877-267-2290. Even a miniscule nick in the pipeline’s protective coating must be assessed.


Locating Pipelines and When to Do So

Improper or unauthorized digging near a pipeline is the most common cause of serious pipeline problems. Avoid accidentally damaging a line on your property, incurring a fine or harming yourself or others by knowing where pipelines are located.

Preparing to Dig

One-Call is a free national service that alerts underground utility operators, like Phillips 66 Pipeline LLC, to mark the location of their lines before a digging project begins. Always contact your local One-Call office three working days before you plan to dig. To do so, simply dial 8-1-1. In most states this is not merely suggested, it’s the law.

Dialing 811 for One-Call will always give you the most accurate underground utility location information and is the only and best way to proceed before a digging project; however, there are other methods to find the general location of a line.

Knowing What is Nearby: Pipeline Markers

Pipeline markers are signs (like the one pictured below) placed by operators at regular intervals along the general route of a pipeline. These signs are commonly found near road and railway crossings, at aboveground facilities along the pipeline system, and within a right-of-way. A right-of-way is the dedicated clearing of land that provides a safety buffer above and around a pipeline. Most often a right-of-way appears as a wide strip of manicured grass.

Markers vary in shape, size and color, but all include the type of product transported, the operator’s name and emergency contact number. These signs simply act as a reminder that pipelines are nearby; they are not a replacement method for calling 811 before a digging project.

Using Online Resources

Visit our Phillips 66 Pipeline LLC Map Viewer to find all Phillips 66 Pipeline LLC-operated pipelines closest to you.

The National Pipeline Mapping System contains information about the facilities, hazardous liquids lines and gas transmission lines near you. This free online application is managed by the U.S. Department of Transportation and shares information for all PHMSA-regulated operators in the United States.

Online mapping tools are for reference purposes only; they are not a replacement method for calling 811 before a digging project.


Preventing Encroachment

A right-of-way (sometimes referred to as a ROW) is the dedicated clearing of land that provides a safety buffer above and around a pipeline. Most often a right-of-way appears as a wide strip of manicured grass. A cleared right-of-way, free of vegetation and structures, ensures easy aerial and on-foot monitoring, quick accessibility and faster maintenance.

Right-of-Way Encroachment

Encroachments are obstructions that can limit or impair a pipeline operator’s ability to effectively maintain pipelines in a safe operating environment. Examples of common farming and ranching encroachments include: sheds, fences, drain tiling, and trees.

Phillips 66 Pipeline LLC, like all operators, has guidelines from the U.S. Department of Transportation Pipeline & Hazardous Materials Safety Administration for the implementation of an encroachment program that meets federal pipeline safety standards. Our program includes the provision of cultivatable land along a right-of-way, building setback specifications, utility crossing standards, encroachment education for neighbors and adequate cover over our pipelines.

Our pipelines are covered by written easement agreements that provide for reasonable legal protection against unacceptable encroachments and are filed as public records in the counties and parishes where we operate. We require advance review and approval of construction plans that impact our established pipeline rights-of-way so that encroachment issues can be mitigated.

Encroachment Guidelines
Use the following guidelines to safely protect against encroachment around Phillips 66 Pipeline LLC pipelines.
  • Buildings or other engineered structures or works, including, but not limited to barns, sheds, ponds, retaining walls, etc. should be no closer than 50 feet
  • Fences running in parallel to the right-of-way should be no closer than 25 feet
  • Fences running in non-parallel to the right-of-way should be no closer than 4 feet
Right-of-Way Clearing

Each year, Phillips 66 Pipeline LLC clears hundreds of miles of pipeline right-of-way as part of our safety effort. A “cleared right-of-way” means trees and brush will be eliminated. Trees and tree canopies prevent us from effectively monitoring pipelines for issues and tree roots can cause damage to the protective pipeline coatings.

In most cases where a right-of-way contains only a single pipeline, Phillips 66 Pipeline LLC will clear a strip extending 15 feet on either side of the pipeline or the width of the easement, whichever is the lesser expanse. In areas where more than one line is buried, the clearing extends 15 feet from the outermost pipeline(s) or the width of the easement, whichever is the lesser expanse.

Please use our non-emergency number, 1-800-231-2566, for more information about our encroachment guidelines or to discuss a project with one of our right-of-way representatives.


On-Going Maintenance

Phillips 66 Pipeline LLC regularly conducts maintenance on its pipeline system. This may include walking right-of-way inspections, parts maintenance for valves, or preventative digs.

Anytime a Phillips 66 Pipeline LLC employee or contractor will need access to a right-of-way traversing your property, you will be notified unless prior arrangements have been made.

Any work that would inconvenience you will be kept at a minimum and completed as quickly as practicable. When long-term maintenance work is conducted, you will be met with in person and given the name and number of a Phillips 66 Pipeline LLC local representative and/or the name of a right-of-way specialist to voice concerns.