Why Pipelines Are Needed

Phillips 66 Pipeline LLC operates approximately 15,000 miles of pipeline and nearly 50 storage terminals. Each day we safely transport raw petroleum products, like crude oil, and refined products, like gasoline, diesel and jet fuel. Energy products like these are part of our daily lives and necessary as we fuel our cars, cool our homes and use manufactured plastics products.

Operating with Integrity

Operating with Integrity

Pipelines are the most reliable method to move energy products, helping to meet our nation’s growing economic and energy needs. They operate under many government regulations and industry standards. These measures address all aspects of pipeline operation, such as where and how they are built, operated, tested and maintained – and we strive to exceed each requirement and best practice.

Our commitment to safety goes further, with the goal that everyone who lives or works near our assets is aware of our lines and facilities, adopts safe digging practices, learns the signs of a pipeline leak and knows how to quickly respond if he or she suspects a problem.


Life, Property & Environmental Hazards

Products transported and stored in Phillips 66 Pipeline LLC pipeline and terminal systems include refined products, crude oils, highly volatile liquids (HVLs), natural gas and hydrogen. These are considered hazardous materials. Though we interact with energy products like these in our daily lives they are potentially dangerous if improperly managed, transported or released.

There are many federal and state regulatory agencies to confirm products are handled in pipelines of integrity and by capable operators. The risk of living or working near a pipeline containing hazardous materials is tied to the potential of an unplanned release of product carried by the pipeline. Unintentional releases can impact surrounding populations, property and the environment. Releases may result in property damage, environmental damage or injuries – even death.

Pipeline incidents like these can yield a significant economic effect by interrupting business or damaging infrastructure. Moreover, releases can impact wildlife or contaminate drinking water. Consequences escalate due to fire or explosion caused by the ignition of released products, toxicity or asphyxiation effects.

Fortunately, serious pipeline incidents are rare. However, it is best to understand the hazards, which vary by product type, pipeline type and external-to-pipe characteristics, of living or working near a pipeline.

The U.S. Department of Transportation Pipeline & Hazardous Materials Safety Administration (PHMSA) provides useful hazardous materials information. PHMSA jointly publishes and distributes the Emergency Response Guidebook as an aid for first responders to quickly identify and provide protection from specific hazardous materials involved in transportation accidents and incidents.

Find general information about each product type in the chart below.
PRODUCT COLOR & DESCRIPTION LOCATION AFTER RELEASED FLAMMABILITY HEALTH HAZARD
REFINED PRODUCTS Refined products vary widely in color. Vapors are heavier than air and tend to settle to the ground. Gasolines of various kinds are the most flammable. Kerosene and fuel oil are somewhat less likely to ignite, but should be considered dangerous. Breathing low concentrations of refined products leads to little health hazard. Contact can sometimes cause minor skin irritations; however, refrain from contact.
Higher concentrations of refined products may lead to asphyxiation.
CRUDE OIL Color can vary from yellow to nearly black. “Sour crude” contains hydrogen sulfide (H2S), and, under certain conditions can be recognized by its rotten egg odor. Vapors are heavier than air and tend to settle near the ground. Flash points of crude oil mixtures can vary. Will burn, producing heat and smoke. Can cause throat and eye irritation as well as breathing difficulty. Heavier concentrations will cause dizziness similar to intoxication and may lead to serious breathing difficulty, even death.
HIGHLY VOLATILE LIQUIDS (HVLS) Colorless. It is transported as a liquid but becomes a gas and forms a vapor cloud when released into the atmosphere. Vapors vary in size depending on weather conditions. If the vapor drifts from the immediate vicinity of a leak, becomes much less visible and detected only by a monitor. Vapors are heavier than air and tend to settle to the ground, especially in low-lying areas. Vapors are highly flammable and ignite very easily. Fire hazard is higher on a calm day, since vapors remain more concentrated instead of dispersed in the air. Vapor displacement of oxygen can result in asphyxiation. Vapors can cause severe freeze burns when in contact with skin.
Some HVLs contain hydrogen sulfide (H2S). Light concentrations of H2S will cause throat and eye irritation as well as breathing difficulty. Heavier concentrations of H2S will cause dizziness similar to intoxication and may lead to serious breathing difficulty, even death.
NATURAL GAS A colorless gas. Vapors from liquefied gas are initially heavier than air and spread along the ground. Vapors may travel to source of ignition and flash back. Natural gas, alone, does not burn. Combustion only occurs when there is a mixture of gas and air, containing between five and 15 percent of natural gas. Harmful, even fatal, if inhaled or absorbed through the skin.
HYDROGEN A odorless, colorless gas. Vapors may travel considerable distances to a source of ignition where they can ignite, flash back or explode. Extremely flammable, burning with a clear flame that can be difficult to see. Can reduce the oxygen available for breathing.

Prevention Measures Taken

As part of the Phillips 66 Pipeline LLC on-going damage prevention program, many integrity management tactics are employed to maximize the safety of our communities by ensuring our pipelines, tanks and pumps operate safely, reliably and in compliance with federal and state law.

Operational data is transmitted by a Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) system, which is a series of land-line and satellite electronic controls and computers. This system allows Phillips 66 Pipeline LLC to remotely operate valves and pumps and monitor pressures and other vital information from our control center, located in Bartlesville, Oklahoma.

Some additional components of the integrity management program include:
  • Inspection of surface conditions via aerial patrol or on foot, per U.S. DOT regulations
  • Pipeline inspection using in-line inspection devices, also known as smart tools or PIGs
  • Pipeline integrity analysis through hydrotesting
  • Pipeline corrosion mitigation through cathodic protection, chemical inhibitors and special pipeline coatings
  • The support and participation of the One-Call center network
  • 24-hours a day, controllers, located at the Phillips 66 Pipeline LLC control center, monitor consoles that provide continuous data on products, pressures, flow rates and emergency information
Phillips 66 Pipeline LLC meets or exceeds applicable federal and state laws regarding safety and environmental protection in the operation of our terminals. Additional storage terminal program components include:
  • Tanks that are designed, constructed and maintained to rigorous standards and surrounded by earthen or concrete walls, called dikes, to effectively keep fuels on our property in the unlikely event of a spill
  • Systems in place to mitigate against overfilling tanks and to alert in case of possible leaks
  • Technical truck driver training before clearance to load at Phillips 66 Pipeline LLC facilities
  • Corrosion control, overpressure protection and mechanical damage prevention to protect facility pipe
  • Regular visual inspections of equipment
  • Precautions taken to protect waterways at marine terminal locations

Emergency Preparedness Communications

Phillips 66 Pipeline LLC follows U.S. Department of Transportation, Occupational Safety and Health Administration, and Environmental Protection Agency regulations. Because of this, we have developed a public awareness program that strives to educate, inform and interact with local, state and federal agencies, first responders, residents, excavators, schools, and civic organizations.

We value strong relationships with our stakeholders so that in case of an unforeseen emergency situation, we will be able to work together effectively. Because of this, periodic tabletop and emergency response exercises are conducted so that Phillips 66 Pipeline LLC and others will be able to respond to any emergency situation in a coordinated and organized manner.

Our Role in an Emergency

Our employees have been trained as First Responders, Operations Level - a term used to describe a defensive response to contain a release from a safe distance, keep it from spreading and prevent exposures. We coordinate with local response agencies to aid and assist them in their efforts to respond to pipeline-related emergencies. In the event of an unplanned release of product, our facilities have fail-safe systems to mitigate problems. The emergency shutdown (ESD) system can be activated manually on-site, remotely by the Phillips 66 Pipeline LLC control center in Bartlesville, Okla., or by one of the various electronic detection devices.

Phillips 66 Pipeline LLC has adopted the National Incident Management System (NIMS) Incident Command System (ICS) for response during emergency situations. By utilizing NIMS ICS and the Unified Command, all parties involved in a response effort are informed and involved in decision-making. Public agencies have valuable expertise in emergency response situations and Phillips 66 Pipeline LLC personnel are knowledgeable concerning the products that we work with on a day-to-day basis. Utilizing NIMS ICS enables all parties to work together efficiently and effectively to address any emergency situations that could occur.

Phillips 66 Pipeline LLC Emergency Response Action Plans

A copy of our Emergency Response Plan has been provided to your local Emergency Operations Center and is updated annually. You can immediately view and download the Emergency Response Action Plan (ERAP) section by visiting our resources section.

If you have general questions about our ERAPs, contact your local Phillips 66 Pipeline LLC office or call our toll-free non-emergency information line at 1.800.231.2566.

Product Hazards
Products transported and stored in Phillips 66 Pipeline LLC pipeline and terminal systems include refined products, crude oils, highly volatile liquids (HVLs), natural gas and hydrogen. Find general information about each product type here.

One-Call Requirements

811 National Call Before You Dig

Pipelines are monitored regularly, but natural elements, such as erosion and flooding can change a pipeline’s depth of cover. Therefore, every digging job -- no matter how large or small and repeated or not -- requires dialing 811, the federally-mandated “Call Before You Dig” phone number. This rule applies to municipalities and governmental organizations as well as citizens.

By calling 811, users are connected to a local One-Call service which will deploy underground utility operators to a proposed dig site to mark lines for no charge. Comply with the law, and encourage residents in your community to also call at least three business days before beginning your project.

Follow these best practices to ensure safe digging during your projects:

Avoid project delays by allowing adequate scheduling time
Provide accurate information about the dig location and, if possible, outline proposed dig site with white paint or flags
Verify that operators will have access to the excavation site to mark lines. Wait until lines are located and marked before you dig.
Once a pipeline is identified, respect the markings and dig carefully.
Follow the excavation requirements of your state’s One-Call law and Common Ground Alliance (CGA) Best Practices, which may include hand-digging, soft-digging, vacuum extraction methods and pneumatic hand tools.

Locating Pipelines in Your Jurisdiction

Obtaining Maps

Visit our Phillips 66 Pipeline LLC Map Viewer now to find all Phillips 66 Pipeline LLC-operated pipelines closest to you.

You can obtain downloadable maps of Phillips 66 Pipeline LLC and all other hazardous liquids transmission, gas transmission and gas gathering operator locations for free by visiting the National Pipeline Mapping System (NPMS). The NPMS is a web-based application, managed by the U.S. Department of Transportation, in cooperation with other federal and state governmental agencies as well as the pipeline industry, which shows the approximate location of gas and hazardous liquid transmission pipelines, liquefied natural gas facilities and hazardous liquid storage tanks jurisdictional to the Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration (PHMSA).

The NPMS provides detailed information including geospatial data, attribute data, public contact information and meta data pertaining to lines and facilities in your jurisdiction. Operator contact information can be sorted by state, county or zip code and typically includes the operator’s name, product transported, contact name and phone number. As an emergency responder, you may request special access to download these maps into your local GIS system.

The One-Call System

Phillips 66 Pipeline LLC is a member of the One-Call center network. Calls placed to 811, the federally-mandated “Call Before You Dig” phone number, are routed to your local One-Call center, which in turn contacts the appropriate company to locate pipelines or other buried utilities.

The One-Call system is typically used before starting an excavation project; however, the One-Call system may be the quickest way to bring all area utilities together in an emergency response. By calling 811 during an emergency, a responder could quickly be provided emergency numbers for all the utilities in a response zone.

Pipeline Markers

Be mindful of signs, called pipeline markers, placed along the pipeline right-of-way, the dedicated clearing of land that provides a safety buffer above and around a pipeline. They are commonly found at road and railway crossings, fence lines and street intersections. These pipeline markers identify the type of product carried in the line, the company name and the operator’s emergency phone number.

While a pipeline marker, like those illustrated above, is a good indicator that there is a pipeline nearby, it will only show the approximate location of a line and will not indicate how a pipeline curves or angles underground as it runs between markers.

Removing or tampering with markers is unsafe and violates federal law. If signs are missing or damaged, please contact Phillips 66 Pipeline LLC by visiting www.phillips66pipeline.com.


Things to Consider: High-Consequence Areas

Things to Consider: High-Consequence Areas

High-Consequence Areas (HCAs) are locations where a pipeline leak could have greater consequences to health, safety or the environment. Examples include dense population centers, drinking water zones, ecological areas, schools, hospitals, nursing homes, and navigable waterways. Preventative and mitigative measures are given priority in HCAs in order to protect these sensitive and vital areas. Contact our non-emergency line at 1-800-231-2566 to learn more about identified HCAs in your jurisdiction or to share information about a new HCA in your community.


Right-of-Way Encroachment

A right-of-way (sometimes referred to as a ROW) is the dedicated clearing of land that provides a safety buffer above and around a pipeline. Most often a right-of-way appears as a wide strip of manicured grass. A cleared right-of-way, free of vegetation and structures, ensures easy aerial and on-foot monitoring, quick accessibility and faster maintenance.
Preventing Encroachment
Right-of-Way Encroachment

Encroachments are obstructions that can limit or impair a pipeline operator’s ability to effectively maintain pipelines in a safe operating environment. Examples of common encroachments include: sheds, patios, swimming pools, fences, septic systems, swimming pools, and trees.

Phillips 66 Pipeline LLC, like all operators, has guidelines from the U.S. Department of Transportation Pipeline & Hazardous Materials Safety Administration for the implementation of an encroachment program that meets federal pipeline safety standards. Our program includes the provision of greenbelts along a right-of-way, building setback specifications, utility crossing standards, encroachment education for neighbors and adequate cover over our pipelines.

Our pipelines are covered by written easement agreements that provide for reasonable legal protection against unacceptable encroachments and are filed as public records in the counties and parishes where we operate. We require advance review and approval of construction plans that impact our established pipeline rights-of-way so that encroachment issues can be mitigated.

Encroachment Guidelines
Use the following guidelines to safely protect against encroachment around Phillips 66 Pipeline LLC pipelines.
  • Buildings or other engineered structures or works, including, but not limited to barns, sheds, pools, ponds, retaining walls, decks, etc. should be no closer than 50 feet
  • Fences running in parallel to the right-of-way should be no closer than 25 feet
  • Fences running in non-parallel to the right-of-way should be no closer than 4 feet
Right-of-Way Clearing

Each year, Phillips 66 Pipeline LLC clears hundreds of miles of pipeline right-of-way as part of our safety effort. A “cleared right-of-way” means trees and brush will be eliminated. Trees and tree canopies prevent us from effectively monitoring pipelines for issues and tree roots can cause damage to the protective pipeline coatings.

In most cases where a right-of-way contains only a single pipeline, Phillips 66 Pipeline LLC will clear a strip extending 15 feet on either side of the pipeline or the width of the easement, whichever is the lesser expanse. In areas where more than one line is buried, the clearing extends 15 feet from the outermost pipeline(s) or the width of the easement, whichever is the lesser expanse.

Please use our non-emergency number, 1-800-231-2566, for more information about our encroachment guidelines or to discuss a project with one of our right-of-way representatives.


Special Considerations for Planners & Developers

Special Considerations for Planners & Developers

We encourage planning officials to incorporate the best practices identified by the Pipelines and Informed Planning Alliance (PIPA) during the planning, review and approval process that accompanies new construction or land improvements.

PIPA assists planners in becoming risk-informed about transmission pipelines and helps guide users to make better land-use planning and development decisions in relation to pipelines. PIPA has developed helpful toolboxes for government officials, property owner/developers and real estate managers. Visit PIPA to download free materials, including an informational brochure, a checklist for planning and design and an evaluation worksheet for developers.

Considering Pipeline Location

Public planning officials and utility excavators play an important role in pipeline safety by connecting pipeline operators to property owners, developers and public works specialists early in the project planning process. Public officials can help communicate concerns to owners and developers through the public planning review process – thus avoiding potentially costly project delays later.

While property change of use is inevitable, proper planning and development oversight t by public officials can help ensure the safety and well-being of the general public, protection of the environment, an increase in pipeline awareness, enhanced communication between owners/developers and Phillips 66 Pipeline LLC, and the protection of Phillips 66 Pipeline LLC’s established easement rights.

High Consequence Areas

High-Consequence Areas (HCAs) are locations where a pipeline leak could have greater consequences to health, safety or the environment. Examples include dense population centers, drinking water zones, ecological areas, and navigable waterways. Preventative and mitigative measures are given priority in HCAs in order to protect these sensitive and vital areas. Contact our non-emergency line at 1-800-231-2566 to learn more about identified HCAs in your jurisdiction or to share information about a new HCA in your community.

Pipeline Right-of-Way Operator Ingress and Egress

Planners and developers must understand the operational need for Phillips 66 Pipeline LLC to gain access to its pipeline rights-of-way. Phillips 66 Pipeline LLC has procedures in place for conducting excavations and repairs on pipelines, in compliance with the U.S. Department of Transportation, Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration (PHMSA) regulations. These procedures include risk assessment and safety requirements. A written plan is prepared for each project, and, where applicable, all affected parties, including operations employees, pipeline controllers, contractors, other utilities, neighbors and local emergency responders are made aware of the plan.

Phillips 66 Pipeline LLC regularly conducts pipeline right-of-way patrols on foot or by air. Employees perform additional inspections as needed. Most importantly, during an unplanned release, it is imperative that emergency responders and pipeline company representatives are able to quickly access the line with ease.


On-Going Maintenance

Phillips 66 Pipeline LLC regularly conducts maintenance on its pipeline system. This may include walking right-of-way inspections, parts maintenance for valves, or preventative digs.

Anytime a Phillips 66 Pipeline LLC employee or contractor will need access to a right-of-way traverse properties in your community, an effort will be made to notify the landowner, property owner or homeowner.

Any work that would inconvenience citizens, in a more impactful way, will be kept at a minimum and completed as quickly as practicable. When long-term maintenance work is conducted, neighbors will be given the name and number of a Phillips 66 Pipeline LLC local representative and/or the name of a right-of-way specialist to voice concerns.